Select bibliography on the Proboscidea

Compiled by Gregory A. Liggett

26 April 2015

 

ABELL, L. 1934. Kansas fossils. The Aerend, 5(1):44-52.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1984. Hot Springs, South Dakota: Entrapment and taphonomy of columbian mammoth, p. 113-127. In P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1984. New world mammoth distribution, p. 90-112. In P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1989. Spiral fractured mammoth bone from nonhuman taphonomic processes at Hot Springs Mammoth Site, p. 139-146. In R. Bonnichsen and M. H. Sorg (eds.), Bone Modification. Center for the study of the First Americans, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1990. The mammoth population of the Hot Springs Site and associated megafauna, p. 32-39. In L. D. Agenbroad, J. I. Mead, and L. W. Nelson (eds.), Megafauna and Man: Discovery of America's Heartland. Mammoth Site, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1994. A brief history of the Hot Springs Mammoth Site, p. 4-14. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1994. Geology, Hydrology, and excavation of the site, p. 15-27. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1994. The significance of the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, p. 369-379. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 1994. Taxonomy of North American Mammuthus and biometrics of the Hot Springs Mammoths, p. 158-207. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D. 2005. North American Proboscideans: Mammoths: The state of Knowledge, 2003. Quaternary International, 126-128:73-92.

AGENBROAD, L. D., AND B. R. BARTON. 1991. North American Mammoths: an annotated bibliography. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs Scientific Papers, 2:1-118.

AGENBROAD, L. D., A. M. LISTER, D. MOL, AND V. L. ROTH. 1994. Mammuthus primigenius remains from the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, p. 269-281. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D., AND J. I. MEAD. 1987. Age structure analysis of Mammuthus columbi, Hot Springs Mammoth Site, South Dakota. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 4:101-102.

AGENBROAD, L. D., AND J. I. MEAD. 1994. The taphonomy of Mammuthus remains in a closed system trap, Hot Springs Mammoth Site, South Dakota, p. 283-305. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGENBROAD, L. D., AND J. I. MEAD. 1996. Distribution and palaeoecology of central and western North America {IMammuthus}, p. 280-288. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

AGENBROAD, L. D., S. L. SHOSHANI, AND J. SHOSHANI. 1994. Columbian Mammoth: Paleontological discovery of a gland stone at Hot Springs, South Dakota, p. 359-368. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

AGUIRRE, E. 1969. Evolutionary history of the elephant. Science, 164:1366-1376.

AKERSTEN, W. A. 1970. Interpretation of sediments and vertebrate fossils in fill of Red Light Bolson, southeastern Hudspeth County, Texas, p. 82-87, Geology of the Southern Quitman Mountains Area, Trans-Pecos, Texas %7 1970 Biennial Field Trip Guidebook. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.

AKERSTEN, W. A. 1970. Red Light Local Fauna (Blancan) of the Love Formation, southeastern Hudspeth County, Texas. Bulletin Texas Memorial Museum, 20:1-53.

AKERSTEN, W. A. 1996. Diversity bottlenecks, oddball survivors, and negative keys, p. 3-15. In K. M. Stewart and K. L. Seymour (eds.), Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals: Tributes to the Career of C.S. (Rufus) Churcher. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

AKERSTEN, W. A., H. G. MCDONALD, AND J. M. SOISET. 1986. Tertiary vertebrates of the Rockland Valley, southeastern Idaho. Tobacco Root Geological Society Annual Field Conference, 11:3.

AKERSTEN, W. A., S. J. MILLER, AND C. A. REPENNING. 2002. The Booth Canyon Local Fauna, a depauperate mammalian assemblage from the late Pleistocene of eastern Bonneville County, Idaho. Idaho Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper, 37:101-130.

ALBRITTON, C. C., JR. 1966. Stratigraphy of the Domebo Site. Contribution of the Museum of the Great Plains, 1:10-13.

ANDERSON, E. 1984. Who's who in the Pleistocene: A mammalian bestiary, p. 40-89. In P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

ANNONOMOUS. 5,000,000 years ago.

ANNONOMOUS. After Gove County's Fossils.

ANNONOMOUS. 1894. Notice 3. Scott City Republican.

ANNONOMOUS. 1934. Historic find. Liberal News, September 24.

ANTEVS, E. 1953. Artifacts with mammoth remains, Naco, Arizona II. Age of the Clovis fluted points with the Naco Mammoth. American Antiquity, 19:15-24.

ANTEVS, E. 1959. Geoogical age of the Lehner Mammoth Site. American Antiquity, 25:31-34.

ANTOINE, P.-O., J.-L. WELCOMME, L. MARIVAUX, I. BALOCH, M. BENAMMI, AND P. TASSY. 2003. First record of Paleogene Elephantoidea (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the Bugti Hills of Pakistan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23(4):977-980.

ANYONGE, W. 1991. Fauna from a new lower Miocene locality west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 11(3):378-390.

ARROYO-CABRALES, J. N., O. J. POLACO, C. LAURITO, E. JOHNSON, M. T. ALBERDI, AND A. L. V. ZAMORA. 2007. The Proboscideans (Mammalia) from Mesoamerica. Quaternary International, 169(17-23).

AVERIANOV, A. O. 1996. Sexual dimorphism in the mammoth skull, teeth, and long bones, p. 260-267. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

BARBOUR, E. H. 1913. Mammalian fossils from Devil's Gulch. Nebraska Geological Survey, 4(33):177-190.

BARBOUR, E. H. 1914. The round ligament of Nebraska proboscideans. Nebraska Geological Survey, 4(36d):241-246.

BARBOUR, E. H. 1925. Skeletal parts of the Columbian mammoth Elaphas maibeni, sp. nov. Nebraska State Museum Bulletin, 10(1):95-118.

BARBOUR, E. H., AND C. W. HIBBARD. 1941. A shovel-tusked mastodon, Amebelodon fricki, from Kansas. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum, 2(4):37-46.

BARBOUR, E. H., AND G. F. STERNBERG. 1935. Gnathabelodon thorpei, gen. et sp. nov., a new mud-grubbing mastodon. Nebraska State Museum Bulletin, 42(1):395-404.

BECKER, J. J., AND H. G. MCDONALD. 1998. The Star Valley Local Fauna (early Hemphillian), southwestern Idaho. Idaho Museum of Natural History Occasional Paper, 36:25-49.

BENNETT, D. K. 1977. Paleontology, paleoecology, and biostratigraphy of the Rhinoceros Hill fauna (Hemphillian: latest Miocene), and sedimentology of the enclosing Ogallala Formation, Ash Hollow Member, Wallace County, Kansas %9 Thesis, Lawrence, University of Kansas, 209 p.

BENNETT, D. K. 1984. Cenozoic rocks and faunas of north-central Kansas %9 Thesis, Lawrence, University of Kansas, 240 p.

BEVER, G. S., T. E. MACRINI, AND C. N. JASS. 2008. A natural endocranial cast of a fossil proboscidean with comments on the evolution of elephant neuroanatoy and the scientific value of "no data" specimens, p. 11-22. In G. H. Farley and J. R. Choate (eds.), Unlocking the Unknown; Papers Honoring Dr. Richard J. Zakrzewski. Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas.

BEZUIDENHOUT, A. J., AND C. D. SEEGERS. 1996. The osteology of the African elephant ({ILoxodonta africana}): vertebral column, ribs and sternum. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 63:131-147.

BRUNET, M., AND M.P.F.T. 2000. Chad: Discovery of a vertebrate fauna close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(1):205-209.

BURNETT, G. T. 1830. Illustrations of the Quadrupeda, or quadrupeds, being the arrangement of the true four-fotted beasts indicated in outline. quart. J. Sci. Lit. Art, 28:336-353.

BUSS, I. O. 1961. Some observations on food habits and behavior of the African elephant. Journal of Wildlife Management, 25(2):131-148.

CALOI, L., T. KOTSAKIS, M. R. PALOMBO, AND C. PETRONIO. 1996. The Pleistocene dwarf elephants of Mediterranean islands, p. 234-239. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

CAMPBELL, K. L., J. E. E. ROBERTS, L. N. WATSON, J. STETEFELD, A. M. SLOAN, A. V. SIGNORE, J. W. HOWATT, J. R. H. TAME, N. ROHLAND, T.-J. SHEN, J. J. AUSTIN, M. HOFREITER, C. HO, R. E. WEBER, AND A. COOPER. 2009. Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer biochemical properties adaptive for cold tolerance. Nature Genetics:1-5.

CARLSON, D. L., AND D. G. STEELE. 1992. Human-mammoth sites: Problems and prospects, p. 149-169. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

CARRANZA-CASTANEDA, O., AND W. E. MILLER. 1987. Rediscovered type specimens and other important published Pleistocene mammalian fossils from central Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 7(3):335-341.

CASAMIQUELA, R. M., J. SHOSHANI, AND T. D. DILLEHAY. 1996. South American proboscideans: general introduction and reflections on Pleistocene extinctions, p. 316-320. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

CHARLTON, O. C. 1890. On the occurrence of mammoth remains in Franklin County, Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 12:74.

CHEATUM, E. P., AND D. ALLEN. 1966. Ecological significance of the fossil fresh-water and land shells from the Domebo mammoth kill site. Contribution of the Museum of the Great Plains, 1:36-43.

CHURCHER, C. S. 1986. A mammoth measure of time: molar compression in Mammuthus from the Old Crow Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 3:61-64.

COE, M. 1978. The decomposition of elephant carcasses in the Tsavo (East) National Park, Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments, 1:71-86.

CONYBEARE, A., AND G. HAYNES. 1984. Observations on elephant mortality and bones in water holes. Quaternary Research, 22:189-200.

COOK, H. J. 1922. Two new bunomastodonts from Colorado. Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, 4(1):2-15.

COOKE, H. B. S. 1947. Variation in the molars of the living African elephant and a critical revision of the fossil Proboscidea of southern Africa: part I. American Journal of Science, 245:434-457.

COOKE, H. B. S. 1960. Further revision of the fossil Elephantidae of southern Africa. Palaeontologia Africana: Annals of the Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, University of the Witwatersrand, 8:46-58.

COPE, E. D. 1899. Vertebrate remains from Port Kennedy bone deposit. Journal of the Philidelphia Academy of Natural Science, 2(11):193-267.

CZAPLEWSKI, N. J., AND K. S. SMITH. 2003. The gomphothere Stegomastodon (Mammalia: Proboscidea) in the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geology Notes, 63(3):104-111.

DAESCHLER, E. B. 1996. Selective mortality of mastodons (Mammut americanum) from the Port Kennedy Cave (Pleistocene; Irvingtonian), Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, p. 83-96. In K. M. Stewart and K. L. Seymour (eds.), Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals: Tributes to the Career of C.S. (Rufus) Churcher. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

DALQUEST, W. W. 1977. Mammals of the Holloman local fauna, Pleistocene of Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist, 22(2):255-268.

DALQUEST, W. W., AND M. OSWALDO. 1980. Late Hemphillian mammals of the Ocote local fauna, Guanajuato, Mexico. Texas Memorial Museum Pearce-Sellards Series, 32:1-25.

DALQUEST, W. W., E. ROTH, AND F. JUDD. 1969. The mammal fauna of Schulze Cave, Edwards County, Texas. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, 13(4):205-276.

DAVIS, L. B., J. SAYSETE, D. C. BATTEN, AND J. F. RITTLE. 1996. Blacktail Cave: a late-glacial to post-glacial faunal catchment at the southern outlet of the Ice-Free Corridor, west central Montana Rockies. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 13:101-102.

DILLEHAY, T. D. 1992. Humans and proboscideans at Monte Verde, Chile: Analytical problems and explanatory scenarios, p. 191-210. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

DOUGLAS-HAMILTON, I., AND F. MICHELMORE. 1996. Loxodonta africana: range and distribution, past and present, p. 321-326. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

DUBROVO, I. 1990. The Pleistocene elephants of Siberia, p. 1-8. In L. D. Agenbroad, J. I. Mead, and L. W. Nelson (eds.), Megafauna and Man: Discovery of America's Heartland. Mammoth Site, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

DUBROVO, I. A. 1994. Fossil elephants from the Commonwealth of Independent States, p. 426-451. In L. D. Agenbroad and J. I. Mead (eds.), The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

DUDLEY, J. P. 1996. Mammoths, gomphotheres, and the Great American Faunal Interchange, p. 289-295. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

DUDLEY, J. P. 1999. Coevolutionary implications of an endemic Pleistocene megaherbivore fauna for insular floras of the California Channel Islands. Conservation Biology, 13:209-210.

DUDLEY, J. P., G. C. CRAIG, D. S. C. GIBSON, G. HAYNES, AND J. KLIMOWICZ. 2001. Drought mortality of bush elephants in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology, 39:187-194.

DUNDAS, R. G. 2005. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna, p. 79-90. In C. L. Hill and L. B. Davis (eds.), The Merrell Locality (24BE1659) & Centennial Valley, Southwest Montana. Bureau of Land Management Cultural Resources Series No. 4, Billings, Montana.

DUNDAS, R. G., AND L. M. CUNNINGHAM. 1993. Harlan's Ground Sloth (Glossotherium harlani) and a Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) from Stevenson Bridge, Yolo County, California. PaleoBios, 15(3):47-62.

DUTROW, B. L. 1980. Metric analysis of a late Pleistocene mammoth assemblage, Hot Springs, South Dakota %9 Thesis, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 165 p.

ELDER, W. H., AND D. H. RODGERS. 1968. Age and growth of elephants. A study in the Luangwa Valley, 1965-1967. African Wild Life, 22:281-293.

ELFTMAN, H. O. 1931. Pleistocene mammals of Fossil Lake, Oregon. American Museum Novitates, 481:1-21.

ENRIQUEZ, E. A. 1969. Revision sistematica de los Elephantidae por su morfologia y morfometria dentaria (Segunda parte). Estudios Geologicos, 25:123-177.

ENRIQUEZ, E. A. 1969. Revision sistematica de los Elephantidae por su morfologia y morfometria dentaria (Tercera parte). Estudios Geologicos, 25:317-367.

ESHELMAN, R. E. 1975. Geology and paleontology of the early Pleistocene (late Blancan) White Rock fauna from north-central Kansas. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology, 13:1-60.

ESSEN, H. V., AND D. MOL. 1996. Plio-Pleistocene proboscideans from the southern bight of the North Sea and the eastern Scheldt, the Netherlands, p. 214-224. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

FALCONER, H. 1868. On the species of mastodon and elephant occurring in the fossil state in Great Britian, p. 1-308. In C. Murchison (ed.), Palaeontological Memoirs and Notes of the Late Hugh Falconer, A.M., M.D. Robert Hardwicke, London.

FATTI, L. P., G. L. SMUTS, A. M. STARFIELD, AND A. A. SPURDLE. 1980. Age determination in African elephants. Journal of Mammalogy, 61(3):547-551.

FIGGINS, J. D. 1933. A further contribution to the antiquity of man in America. Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, 12(2):4-10.

FISCHER, M. S. 1996. On the position of Proboscidea in the phylogenetic system of Eutheria: a systematic review, p. 35-38. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

FISHER, D. C. 1996. Extinction of proboscideans in North America, p. 296-315. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

FLEISCHER, R. C., E. A. PERRY, K. MURALIDHARAN, E. E. STEVENS, AND C. M. WEMMER. 2001. Phylogeography of the Asian elephant ({IElephas maximus}) based on mitochondrial DNA. Evolution, 55(9):1882-1892.

FOX, J. W., AND C. B. SMITH. 1992. Conslusion: Historical Perspectives, p. 211-227. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

FOX, J. W., AND C. B. SMITH. 1992. Introduction: Historical background, theoretical approaches, and proboscideans, p. 1-14. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

FOX, J. W., C. B. SMITH, AND D. O. LINTZ. 1992. Herd bunching at the Waco Mammoth Site: Preliminary investigations, 1978-1987, p. 51-73. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

FRICK, C. Big game of the Pleistocene:1-14.

FRICK, C. 1926. Tooth sequence in certain trilophodont tetrabelodont mastodons and Trilophodon (Serridentinus) pojoaquensis, new species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 56(2):122-178.

FRICK, C. 1930. Alaska's frozen fauna. Natural History, 30:70-80.

FRISON, G. C. 1976. Cultural activity associated with prehistoric mammoth butchering and processing. Science, 194:728-730.

FRISON, G. C. 1978. Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains. Academic Press, New York, 457 p.

FRISON, G. C. 1986. Human artifacts, mammoth procurement, and Pleistocene extinctions as viewed from the Colby site, p. 91-114. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

FRISON, G. C. 1986. The location and history of the Colby mammoth site, p. 1-25. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

FRISON, G. C. 1986. Mammoth hunting and butchering from a perspective of African elephant culling, p. 115-134. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

FRISON, G. C. 1986. Summary and conclusions, p. 135-142. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

FRISON, G. C. 1986. Taphonomic study of the Colby site mammoth bones, p. 27-90. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

FRISON, G. C. 1989. Experimental use of Clovis weaponry and tools on African elephants. American Antiquity, 54:766-784.

FROEHLICH, D. J., AND J. E. KALB. 1995. Internal reconstruction of elephantid molars: applications for functional anatomy and systematics. Paleobiology, 21(3):379-392.

FURLONG, E. L. 1906. The exploration of Samwel Cave. American Journal of Science, 22:235-247.

GANGLOFF, R. A. 1998. Paleontological and archaeological research in the eastern third of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska a call for symbiosis. Dakoterra, 5:79-84.

GAZIN, C. L. 1935. Annotated list of Pleistocene Mammalia from American Falls, Idaho. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 25(7):297-302.

GERAADS, D., T. KAYA, AND S. MAYDA. 2005. Late Miocene large mammals from Yulafli, Thrace region, Turkey, and their biogeographic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(3):523-544.

GIDLEY, J. W. 1926. Fossil Proboscidea and Edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona. United States Geological Survey Bulletin, 140-B:83-95.

GIDLEY, J. W., AND C. L. GAZIN. 1933. New Mammalia in the Pleistocene fauna from Cumberland Cave. Journal of Mammalogy, 14(4):343-357.

GIDLEY, J. W., AND C. L. GAZIN. 1938. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Cumberland Cave, Maryland. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 171:1-99.

GILBERT, M., AND L. D. MARTIN. 1984. Late Pleistocene fossils of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, and the climatic model of extinction, p. 138-147. In P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein (eds.), Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

GILLETTE, D. D., AND D. B. MADSEN. 1993. The columbian mammoth, Mammuthus columbi, from the Wasatch Mountains of central Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 67(4):669-680.

GRAHAM, R. 1986. Descriptions of the dentitions and stylohyoids of Mammuthus columbi from the Colby site, p. 171-190. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

GRAHAM, R. 1986. Taxonomy of North American mammoths, p. 165-170. In G. C. Frison and L. C. Todd (eds.), The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

GRAY, J. E. 1821. On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Repository, 15(1):296-310.

GUAN, J. 1996. On the shovel-tusked elephantoids from China, p. 124-135. In J. Shoshani and P. Tassy (eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, New York.

GUNN, J. 1992. Regional climatic mechanisms of the Clovis Phase on the southern Plains, p. 171-189. In J. W. Fox, C. B. Smith, and K. T. Wilkins (eds.), Proboscidean and Paleoindian Interactions. Baylor University Press, Waco, Texas.

GUSTAFSON, E. P. 1978. The vertebrate faunas of the Pliocene Ringold Formation, south-central Washington. Bulletin of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Oregon, 23:1-62.

GUTHRIE, D. A. 1993. New information on the prehistoric fauna of San Miguel Island, California, p. 405-416. In F. G. Hochberg (ed.), Third California Island Symposium: Recent advances in Research on the California Islands. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara.

GUTHRIE, R. D. 1968. Paleoecology of the large-mammal community in interior Alaska during the late Pleistocene. American Midland Naturalist, 79(2):346-362.

GUTHRIE, R. D. 2004. Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island. Nature, 429:746-749.

HANNUS, L. A. 1985. The Lange/Ferguson Site--an event of Clovis mammoth butchery with the associated bone tool technology: the mammoth and its track %9 Dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 305 p.

HANNUS, L. A. 1989. Faked mammoth bone frm the Lange/Ferguson Site White River Badlands area, South Dakota, p. 395-412. In R. Bonnichsen and M. H. Sorg (eds.), Bone Modification. Center for the study of the First Americans, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.

HARINGTON, C. R., AND A. C. ASHWORTH. 1986. A mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) tooth from late Wisconsin deposits near Embden, North Dakota, and comments on the distribution of woolly mammoths south of the Wisconsin ice sheets. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 23:909-918.

HARINGTON, C. R., AND D. M. SHACKLETON. 1978. A tooth of Mammuthus primigenius from Chestermere Lake near Calgary, Alberta and the distribution of mammoths in southwestern Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 15:1272-1283.

HARINGTON, C. R., H. W. TIPPER, AND R. J. MOTT. 1974. Mammoth from Babine Lake, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 11:285-303.

HARRIS, A. H. 1977. Wisconsin age environments in the northern Chihauhaun Desert: evidence from the higher vertebrates, p. 23-52. In R. H. Wauer and D. H. Riskind (eds.), Transactions of the Symposium on the Biological Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region, United States and Mexico. National Park Service Transactions and Proceedings Series 3, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

HARRIS, J. M., AND S. M. COX. 1993. Rancho La Brea mammoths. Current Research in the Pleistocene, 10:96-98.

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